Journal of Food Science and Agricultural Technology (JFAT)
School of Agro-Industry
Mae Fah Luang University

ISSN: 2408-1736


Nutritional and Physical Changes of Crispy Waffles Due to the Replacement of Wheat Flour with Coconut Flour

Thanathorn Asavarujanon, Savitree Ratanasumawong, Pinthip Rumpagaporn


Coconut flour, a by-product produced in abundance from the coconut milk and oil industry, is rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and protein and also has a unique taste and aroma. As such, it can be incorporated in various types of baked goods to improve their nutritional values. This study focused on the nutritional and physical changes that occur in crispy waffles when wheat flour was substituted with coconut flour at 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% by weight of wheat flour. The formulation with 100% wheat flour was used as a control. Comparing the waffles with 80% coconut flour versus the control, protein, fat, ash, and crude fiber content increased from 9.64% to 12.44%, 12.87% to 25.64%, 1.42% to 2.44%, and 1.08% to 5.45% (dry basis), respectively. In addition, moisture and carbohydrate content of crispy waffles decreased. Increasing coconut flour content significantly increased the thickness but reduced the width and spread ratio of crispy waffles (p≤0.05). This led to greater hardness when replacing wheat flour with coconut flour (p≤0.05). Lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), total color difference (ΔE), and browning index of crispy waffles significantly increased with the increase of coconut flour (p≤0.05). Substituting wheat flour with coconut flour higher than 50% could improve nutrition values of crispy waffles including protein, fat, and dietary fiber content but influences their hardness, color, diameters, thickness, and spread ratio. The further study on sensory evaluation is necessary in order to select the suitable formulation.


Coconut flour; Crispy waffles; Color; Texture; Dietary fiber

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