Journal of Food Science and Agricultural Technology (JFAT)
School of Agro-Industry
Mae Fah Luang University

ISSN: 2408-1736


Status of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of Small and Medium – Scale 20-Liter Bottled Water Plants in Cambodia: Case Studies in 4 Provinces

Leab Kong, Visith Chavasit, Juntima Photi, Wanphen Wimonpeerapattana


The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 on clean water and sanitation is quite
challenging for most developing countries including Cambodia. Most Cambodians still rely on
drinking water packed in 20-L containers that are bottled by at least 700 small- and mediumscale producers around the country; however, their GMP status requires evaluation. In this study, 16 small- and medium-scale bottled water plants were sampled from four provinces,
i.e., Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Banteay Meanchey, and Prey Veng. The sampled plants were
audited by an expert using the modified GMP principle in the Codex Alimentarius (CODEX).
Waters from different production steps were analyzed for total dissolved solids (TDS),
residual chlorine, hardness, and iron content by using test kits on site. Samples were also sent
to laboratories for chemical analysis (Fe, Cl, nitrate, nitrite, F, Mn, As, pH) and microbiological
qualities (coliforms and Escherichia coli). All audited bottled water plants were equipped
with softening and reverse osmosis (R.O.) systems as well as ultraviolet and/or ozone. Water
sources included municipal water (from surface water) and ground water. Banteay Meanchey
possessed the worst water quality, while Siem Reap had the best water quality regarding total
hardness and TDS. None of the producers had a treatment system designed regarding with
their raw water’s qualities. The results from test kit analysis also indicated that all plants
did not properly maintain their softening

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